The Affordable Care Act's "individual mandate" requires all Americans, with a few exceptions, to have health insurance that typically offers "minimum essential coverage." Going without insurance could bring a tax penalty. For 2014, that penalty is 1 percent of your annual income or $95, whichever is higher, and $47.50 for each uninsured child, to a family cap of $285. The penalty increases to the greater of 2.5 percent of income or $695 per person by 2016. The penalty will show up as an additional tax or a reduction in your federal tax refund.

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